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Table of Contents
Detailed Table of Contents
Chapter 1: Introduction and Research Approach
  1.1. Problem statement and Research Objectives
  1.2. The Trend toward Environmental Stewardship
  1.3. Scope of Study and Definition of Environmental Stewardship Practices
  1.4. Research Approach
  1.5. Research Uses
  1.6. Disclaimer/Limitation of Liability
Chapter 2: Organizational Environmental Stewardship Practices
  2.1. DOT Environmental Policies and Mission Statements
      Standards and Performance Measures for Environmental Policy Statements
      Approaches to and Highlights from DOT Environmental Policy and Mission Statements
  2.2. Environmental Strategic Planning at Transportation Agencies
    2.2.1 Staying Abreast of Legal and Other Requirements
      On-line Legal and Regulatory Resources
      Mass Highway's Process for Staying Current on Environmental Requirements
      Standards and Performance Measures for Organizational Awareness of Legal and Other Requirements
    2.2.2 Identifying Environmental Aspects or Impacts of Operations
      Sample EMS Aspects Analysis Format
      Washington State DOT's Activity/Impact Analysis
      NHDOT's Process for Identifying Significant Environmental Aspects of Operations - Traffic Bureau
      PennDOT's Analysis of Environmental Aspects of Operations
      NSW RTA Environmental Assessment of Construction, Operation, and Maintenance Activities
      Standards and Performance Measures for Identifying Environmental Aspects and Impacts
    2.2.3 Organization Wide Strategic Planning for the Environment
      New York State DOT's Environmental Initiative
      MDSHA Environmental Strategic Plan and Management Systems
      Delaware DOT's Plan to Support Smart Growth and Implement a "Livable Delaware"
      NCDOT's Use of Baldrige as an Environmental Management Framework
      Environmental Strategic Planning at PennDOT via the Strategic Environmental Management Program (SEMP)
      New Brunswick, Canada, DOT Strategic Plan and Environmental Protection Plan
      New South Wales, Australia Roads & Traffic Authority Strategic Plan and EMS
      Resources Developed by DOTs for Environmental Management Systems
  2.3. Setting Objectives and Targets & Tracking Environmental Commitments
    2.3.1 Establishing Environmental Objectives and Targets
      MDSHA Environmental Objectives and Targets
      PennDOT's Targets, Scorecards and Dashboards
      Standards for Establishing Environmental Objectives and Targets
    2.3.2 Environmental Commitment Tracking Through Construction & Maintenance
      DOT "Green Sheets" and the Emergence of Electronic Commitment Tracking Systems
      South Carolina DOT Interdisciplinary Accountability Teams
      New Jersey DOT Environmental Re-evaluation Checklists, Meetings, and Construction Field Reviews
      Kentucky Transportation Cabinet "Communicating All Promises (CAP)"
      Indiana DOT Environmental Compliance Certification
      New York State DOT Environmental Commitment and Obligations Package for Construction (ECOPAC)
      Caltrans' Environmental Commitment Tracking
      MDSHA Environmental Compliance/Consideration Checklists and Independent Environmental Monitors
      Washington State DOT EMS and Construction Compliance Program
      Pennsylvania Turnpike Commission Database for Tracking Environmental Commitments
      NCDOT Environmental Control Teams, Field Monitoring, and Permits on the Web
      Texas DOT Environmental Tracking System
      Colorado DOT Region 6 Environmental Commitment Tracking Database
      FHWA's Domestic Scan on Environmental Commitment Implementation and Lessons Learned
  2.4. Environmental Management Systems
    2.4.1 Why EMS for DOTs?
    2.4.2 Benefits of EMS ? Improved Environmental Performance& Predictability
      Improve Environmental Stewardship
      Implement Leadership and Agency Objectives
      Enhanced Credibility with External Stakeholders
      Improved Relationships with Regulatory Agencies
      Improving Compliance and Eliminating Violations
      Streamlining Regulatory Responsibilities
      Cost Savings
      Improving Environmental Performance: Indicators, Protection, and Enhancements
      Economic Incentives, Including Reduced Liability
      Other Organizational/Operational Benefits
      Helping DOTs Respond to the Challenges They Face
    2.4.3 EMS and the ISO 14001 Standard
    2.4.4 Gap Analysis: What Do You Have Already That Could Be Part of an EMS?
    2.4.5 U.S. Resource Centers for EMS Development
  2.5. Operational Controls, Procedures, and Practices
    2.5.1 Procedures and Manuals
      New York State DOT Environmental Handbook for Transportation Operations
      Mass Highway's Facility Environmental Handbook
      North Carolina DOT BMPs for Construction and Maintenance Activities
      Oregon DOT Right-of-Way BMP Manual
      Standards & Measures for Implementing Environmental Programs & Process Improvements: ISO 14001 Practices
    2.5.2 Standards for Evaluating Procedures
      Standards and Measures for Emergency Preparedness and Response Procedures
      FHWA and AASHTO On-Line Clearinghouse for DOT Specifications
    2.5.3 Construction and Maintenance Decision Support Systems
      Roadkill Data and Habitat Linkage Area Assessment, with Feedback to Design
      Maintenance Facilities Management and Auditing
      Stormwater Facility Evaluation and Prioritization of Improvements
      Culvert and Fish Passage Evaluation and Prioritization of Improvements
      Selection of Appropriate Environmental Measures
      Field Compliance Management
      Roadside Vegetation Management
      Winter Operations
  2.6. Measuring Environmental Performance
      Special Challenges with Environmental Measures
      Individual Performance Accountability
    2.6.1 Program Measures for DOT Environmental Process Improvement Efforts, EMS, and Strategic Plans
      Six Pillars at Oregon DOT
      New York State DOT Initiative Tracking and Participation in State Pollution Prevention Audits
      Maine DOT's EMS Performance Measures
      North Carolina DOT's Delegated Sediment and Erosion Control Program
      New Mexico State Highway and Transportation Department Environmental Measures
      New Brunswick DOT, Canada, Environmental Measures
      Pennsylvania DOT SEMP Maintenance Performance Measures
      WSDOT's Maintenance Accountability Process and Environmental Factors
    2.6.2 Measuring Environmental Outcomes
      Washington State DOT's Success Standards for Wetlands Restoration
      NCDOT's Ecosystem Enhancement Program
    2.6.3 Utilizing a Combination of Program and Environmental Indicators
      Maryland State Highway Administration Environmental Outcome & Program Performance Measures
      Washington State DOT's Environmental Indicators and Public Reporting
      State Environmental Agency Reporting on the State of the Environment
      Canada's Sustainable Transportation Indicators
    2.6.4 Environmental Auditing
      New South Wales Construction Auditing Program
      New Jersey DOT Construction Audits, Contractor Performance Rating System, and Environmental Factors
      New York State DOT Environmental Auditing and Self-Reporting
      Maine DOT's Environmental Audit Program
      Mass Highway's Compliance Tracking and Self-Audit Programs
      Mississippi DOT Maintenance Facility Auditing Program
      PennDOT Stockpile Audits and Award Program
      Missouri Contractor Performance Measures and Evaluation
      Standards and Measures of Environmental Performance Audit Programs
      Standards and Measures for Nonconformance Detection and Corrective and Preventive Action
      Standards and Performance Evaluation for Monitoring and Measurement
  2.7. Environmental Staffing, Roles, and Responsibilities
    2.7.1 Clarifying Roles and Responsibilities to Ensure Environmental Performance
      Mass Highway District Environmental Roles and Responsibilities and Associated Training
      PennDOT Environmental Role and Responsibility Identification for SEMP Implementation
      Caltrans Construction Compliance and Stormwater Roles and Responsibilities
    2.7.2 Staffing: Environmental Support for Construction & Maintenance
      Mn/DOT and WSDOT Environmental Staff Supporting Maintenance & Operations
      NCDOT's Environmental Coordinators in the Field
      Indiana DOT's Environmental Compliance Coordinator
      Virginia DOT's Residency Environmental Specialists for Maintenance
      NYSDOT Construction & Maintenance Environmental Coordinators
  2.8. Environmental Training and Certification
    2.8.1 Competency-Based Training Systems
      PennDOT's Transportation University
      Caltrans Work Breakdown System
    2.8.2 Environmental Training for Construction and Maintenance
      Alabama DOT's Waste Management and Hazardous Materials Awareness Training
      Oregon DOT Environmental Outreach and Training for Maintenance Staff
      Montana (MDT) Environmental Training for Maintenance Field Staff
      Caltrans Environmental & Equipment Training for Construction and Maintenance
      VTrans Regional Environmental Training Workshops for Construction Staff
      VTrans Environmental Training for Maintenance
      Mississippi DOT Maintenance Training for Facility Environmental Compliance and Illicit Discharge Detection and Elimination
      WSDOT Environmental Training for Construction Inspection and Maintenance
      Nova Scotia Department of Transportation & Public Works Short EMS Toolbox Meetings
      WSDOT Training Partnership with Local Governments and Other Transportation Professionals to Deliver Statewide Training and Certification
      KYTC Environmental Leadership Training
      Contractor Outreach and Training
    2.8.3 Train the Trainer Programs
      PennDOT's Instructor Development Program for Internal Subject Experts
      NYSDOT's Training Pipeline for Environmental Coordinators, Construction, & Maintenance Staff
      Qualities to Consider in Identifying and Growing Good Instructors
    2.8.4 Recommended Practices in Implementing Adult Learning Programs that Benefit Construction and Maintenance
      Tailgate Resources: Pocket Guides and Bulletins
      Standards and Measures for Training, Awareness, and Competency Programs
    2.8.5 On the Job Training? Promoting Continuous Learning in the Workplace
    2.8.6 Contractor Certification Programs
      Virginia DOT Specification and Certification for Erosion Control Contractors
      Maine's Voluntary Contractor Certification Program
      WSDOT Partnership with AGC to Deliver Statewide Training and Certification
      Iowa DOT Certification for Construction Inspection, Material Testing, and Spill Prevention
      Certifications Provided by Private Associations
    2.8.7 Sources of Training, Materials, and Information
      State Transportation Agency Training Programs
      Pooled Fund Cooperative (SICOP) and On-Line Programs
      Transportation Curriculum Coordination Council
      National Highway Institute
      Local Technology Assistance Centers
      University Transportation Research Centers
      Listservs
  2.9. Regional DOT Stewardship Practice Exchange & Discussion
Chapter 3: Designing for Environmental Stewardship in Construction & Maintenance
  3.1. Beyond Mitigation: Projects to Achieve Environmental Goals
    3.1.1 Environmental Betterments and Dual Purpose Projects
      Dual Purpose Projects at Caltrans
      NYSDOT's Guidelines and Procedures for Environmental Betterments
    3.1.2 Maintaining or Improving the Natural Environment as Transportation is Built
    3.1.3 Cultural Resource Enhancement Efforts
  3.2. Context Sensitive Design/Solutions
    3.2.1 State DOT CSD/CSS Policies, Plans, Guidelines, Agreements, Training, and Examples
    3.2.2 Context Sensitive Design/Solutions References and Resources
    3.2.3 Designing for Rapid Construction/Renewal
  3.3. Avoiding Impacts to Historic Sites
    3.3.1 Archaeological Sites
  3.4. Designing to Accommodate Wildlife, Habitat Connectivity, and Safe Crossings
    3.4.1 Identifying Locations for Wildlife Crossings
    3.4.2 Monitoring Wildlife Crossings
    3.4.3 Wildlife Crossing Research, Resources, and Techniques
    3.4.4 State DOT Initiatives to Address Wildlife Habitat Connectivity Needs in Planning and Design
      Maine DOT Initiatives to Limit Disruption of Habitat and Transportation Related Wildlife Mortality
      Caltrans Interchange Removal and Partnership to Identify and Address Habitat Connectivity Needs
      Florida DOT Partnership to Determine and Prioritize Connectivity Needs and Contribute to "Green Infrastructure"
      New Hampshire DOT's Pilot Project for Identifying Habitat Connectivity and Wildlife Crossing Needs
      Maryland SHA's Net Gain Wetland Mitigation Policy & Contribution to Regional Restoration/Connectivity Goals
      VTrans Habitat Connectivity Training
      VTrans Habitat Linkage Area Assessment
    3.4.5 Maintenance and Management of Created, Modified, or Restored Habitat
  3.5. Culverts and Fish Passage
    3.5.1 Forms of Stream Crossings
    3.5.2 Bridges versus Culverts
    3.5.3 Potential Adverse Impacts of River and Stream Crossings
    3.5.4 Stream Crossing Design Considerations
      Collecting Adequate Survey Information
      Designing for Target Species
      Avoiding Channel Constriction
      Energy Dissipation at Culvert Exits
      Other Hydraulic Considerations
      Mitigating Fish Passage Effects through Culvert Design Modifications
      Measures for Non-Embedded Culverts
      Other General Recommendations
    3.5.5 Design Methods for New and Replacement Culverts
      Active Channel Design Method
      Stream Simulation Design Method
      Hydraulic Design Method
      Structural Design and Flood Capacity
    3.5.6 Culvert Evaluation for Fish Passage and Ranking for Remediation Efforts
    3.5.7 DOT Practice and Design Guidance for Culvert Installation, Design, and Prioritization for Fish Passage
      Alaska Programmatic Agreement for Fish Passage Improvements
      Maine DOT's Fish Passage Policy and Design Guide
      Oregon DOT Culvert Retrofit and Replacement Program Agreement
      WSDOT Fish Passage Improvements on a System and Project-by-Project Basis
      MDSHA Incorporates Stream Morphology Concepts in Culvert Design
      Alberta Transportation Practices and Measures for Protection of Fish & Aquatic Ecosystems
    3.5.8 Resource Agency and Other Design Guidance for Fish Passage
    3.5.9 Post-Construction Evaluation and Long Term Maintenance and Assessment
  3.6. Stream Restoration and Bioengineering
    3.6.1 Planning Considerations for Stream Restoration and Bioengineering
      Information Requirements
    3.6.2 Coordination and Communication on Bioengineering Projects
    3.6.3 Available Guidebooks and Research in Progress
    3.6.4 Bioengineering Technique Selection
    3.6.5 Bank Protection and Stabilization Techniques
      Riprap
      Gabions
      Toe Protection
      Vegetated Concrete Blocks
      Live Crib Walls
      Root Wads
      Live Staking
      Large Woody Debris
      Live Fascines
      Brush Layering or Branch Packing
      Brush Mattresses
      Coir Fiber Logs
      Ditch Lining, Turf Reinforcement Mats, and Geocellular Containment Systems
      Other Vegetative Streambank Stabilization and Bank Protection Practices
      Borrow
      Drains and Trenches
      Wire Mesh/Cable Net Slope Protection
    3.6.6 River Training and Channel Rehabilitation Techniques
      Grade Control Structures
      Log and Check Dams
      Flow Deflection/Concentration Practices
      Stream Deflectors
      Vanes
      Bendway Weirs
      Boulder Placement In-Stream for Habitat Creation
      Other Flow Redirection Techniques
    3.6.7 Stream Restoration Evaluation and Monitoring
  3.7. Design Guidance for Stormwater and Erosion & Sedimentation Control
      Federally Sponsored Stormwater BMP Manuals
      Guidance on Low Volume Road Design
      State Sponsored Stormwater BMP Manuals
  3.8. Drainage Ditches, Berms, Dikes, and Swales
      Design and Construction Considerations and Practices for Ditches, Dikes, and Swales
      Slope Diversions for Intercepting Stormwater
      Level Spreaders
  3.9. Design for Sustainable, Low Maintenance Roadsides
    3.9.1 Pre-Construction Soil Considerations
      Plans, Specifications, and Estimate (PS&E) for Soil Preparation
    3.9.2 Planning for Native Vegetation and Consistent Roadside Design
      WisDOT Uses STURRA to Fund the Ongoing Use and Preservation of Native Plants
      WSDOT's Roadside Classification Plan
    3.9.3 Designing for Salt Resistant Vegetation
  3.10. Designing to Reduce Snow, Ice, and Chemical Accumulation
    3.10.1 Designing Roads to Minimize Snow Drift
    3.10.2 Designing Snow Fences
      Snow Fence Site Design and Placement Tools
      Plastic Snow Fence Research Results
      Living Snow Fence
    3.10.3 Designing Drainage to Minimize Anti-Icing and Deicing Impacts to Natural Resources
      Structural Roadside BMPs to Control Deicing and Anti-Icing Chemical and Abrasive Laden Runoff
    3.10.4 Snow Disposal and Snow Storage Site Design
      Control of Chloride through Detention and Dilution
      Control of Particulates and Subsequent Mobilization of Metals and PAHs
      Environmental Stewardship Practices in Design and Operation of Snow Storage Sites
  3.11. Designing to Minimize Air Quality Problems
    3.11.1 Center for Environmental Excellence by AASHTO Air Quality Resources
    3.11.2 New England Governors & Eastern Canadian Premiers Greenhouse Gas Reduction Initiatives
    3.11.3 Promoting Carpooling and Transit
      Georgia DOT HOV Land Promotion
      Virginia DOT Commuter Choice Program
      Transit Promotion Activities
    3.11.4 Promoting Telecommuting
    3.11.5 Bicycling Promotion Activities
      Virginia DOT Bicycle Facility Guidelines
      NCDOT Commitment to Integrating Bicycle and Walking into Transportation System and Long-Range Plan
      Maryland DOT Bicycle Safety and Operations Guidelines
      TAC Bicycle Traffic Pavement Marking Guidelines
    3.11.6 ITS Facilitated Air Quality Improvement in Ohio and Kentucky
    3.11.7 Funding for Air Quality Improvement: The Congestion Mitigation & Air Quality Program (CMAQ)
      CMAQ Strategy Cost Per Pound of Emissions Reduced
      State DOT CMAQ Measures and Strategies
      Strategies to Enhance the Role of State DOTs in Supporting Cost-Effective Alternative Mode Strategies
    3.11.8 Tree Shading for Emissions Reduction
  3.12. Design and Specification for Recycling
    3.12.1 The Growing Need for and Importance of Waste Minimization and Recycling
    3.12.2 Common Recycling Applications in the U.S. and Europe
    3.12.3 General Recommendations for DOTs with Regard to Recycling and Waste Management
    3.12.4 Life Cycle Cost-Benefit Analysis
    3.12.5 Areas for Recycling Applications
    3.12.6 Specifications for Recycled Materials in Transportation Applications
  3.13. Designing to Minimize Noise
    3.13.1 Noise Effects and Regulation
      Effects of Highway Noise on People
      Effects of Noise from Roads on Birds and Terrestrial Wildlife
      Effects of Noise from Pile Driving during Construction
    3.13.2 Designing for Roadway/Traffic Noise Source Control
      Pavement Alterations to Reduce Roadway Noise
      Traffic Noise Barriers
      Receptor Controls
      Noise Reduction Resources, Research, and Research Needs
  3.14. Lighting Control/Minimization
    3.14.1 Public and DOT Interest in Lighting Control/Minimization
    3.14.2 Environmental Impacts of Overlighting
    3.14.3 Recent and Upcoming Guides in Lighting Design
    3.14.4 Common Lighting Approaches and Deciding How Much Light Is Enough
      Arizona DOT Research to Improve Lighting Practices
      Comparison of Lighting Sources, Issues, and Costs
      Florida DOT's Coastal Roadway Lighting Manual
      Lighting Environmental Stewardship Practices
      FDOT's Embedded Roadway Lighting Study
      Caltrans Light Minimization Efforts
      Tennessee DOT Light Reduction and Maintenance Cost Savings
  3.15. Design for Sustainability and Energy Conservation
      New York City Transit's Green Building and Design for the Environment Programs
      Design for Efficient Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning of Facilities
      Design for Lighting Conservation
  3.16. Safety Rest Areas, Traveler Services, and Parking Area Design
    3.16.1 Planning for Conservation in Rest Area Design
      Vegetated/Bioinfiltration Swales in Parking Facility Design
      Permeable Pavements
      Porous Concrete Pavement
Chapter 4: Construction Practices for Environmental Stewardship
  4.1. General Construction Site Stewardship Practices
  4.2. Work Area
    4.2.1 Preparing Access and Staging Areas
    4.2.2 Construction Phasing, Sequencing, or Acceleration
    4.2.3 Preserving Local Fish and Wildlife through Attention to Timing Restrictions
    4.2.4 Accelerated Construction
    4.2.5 Pre-Contract and Pre-Construction Activities
  4.3. Construction Involving Historic Properties and/or Other Cultural Resources
    4.3.1 Common Procedures Established for Construction in Areas Involving Historic Properties or Other Cultural Resources
    4.3.2 Discovery of Historic Properties or Other Cultural Resources During Construction
  4.4. Construction in and around Drainage Areas and Streams, Wetlands, and Other Environmentally Sensitive Areas
    4.4.1 Wetlands and Riparian Areas
    4.4.2 Vegetation Protection
    4.4.3 Fish & Wildlife Protection
      Migratory Birds, including Bald Eagles
      Removal of Beaver Dams
    4.4.4 Stewardship Considerations to Avoid Watercourse Contamination
    4.4.5 State Resources and Fact Sheets for Stream Crossings
    4.4.6 Erosion Control in Environmentally Sensitive Areas
  4.5. Erosion and Sedimentation Control
    4.5.1 Regulatory Requirements
      Preventing the Imposition of Numeric Effluent Limits
      Programmatic Approaches to Standards Attainment
      Construction Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan - Considerations & Components
    4.5.2 Manuals for Stormwater and Erosion & Sedimentation Control
    4.5.3 Procedural Management Practices for Water Quality
    4.5.4 Dewatering and Managing the Watercourse
      Dewatering
      Flow Diversion
      Cofferdams
      Turbidity Curtains
      Other Slope Stabilization and Drainage Techniques
      Managing Excavated Material or Spoil
    4.5.5 Interception
      Reducing Slope Length for Erosion Control
      Fiber Rolls
      Gravel Bags
      Triangular Filter Dike
      Strawbale Barriers
      Geotextiles, Mats/Plastic Covers and Erosion Control Blankets
      Inlet Protection Information:
    4.5.6 Infiltration - Sediment Basins and Traps
      Sediment Basins
      Sediment Trap
      Check Dams
      Sandbag Barrier
      Rock Berm
      Maintenance of Sediment Basins and Traps
    4.5.7 Vegetative Erosion Control
    4.5.8 Wind Erosion Control
    4.5.9 Sediment Tracking Prevention
      Stabilizing Construction Entrances/Exits
      Inspecting Adjacent Roads
      Entrance/Outlet Tire Wash
      Combining Recycling and Effective Erosion and Water Quality Control
    4.5.10 Erosion Control Structure Removal
    4.5.11 New Technologies
    4.5.12 Performance Monitoring Systems and Specifications for Contractors
      WSDOT Water Quality Sampling Protocol for Construction Projects
      MDSHA System for 100 Percent Compliance in Construction Erosion & Sedimentation Control
      NCDOT Delegated Erosion and Sedimentation Control Performance Tracking
      Automated Instream Monitoring at NCDOT
      Caltrans Construction Inspection Program
      Contractor Disincentive Specs for Inadequate/Improper Installation of BMPs
      WSDOT Application of ISO 14001 to Erosion and Sedimentation Control
      NHDOT Stormwater Quality Retrofits
  4.6. Vehicle Fluid, Fuel, and Washwater Control
    4.6.1 Construction Vehicle Washing Areas
    4.6.2 Vehicle and Equipment Fueling
    4.6.3 Vehicle and Equipment Maintenance
    4.6.4 Environmental Impacts of Construction & Repair Materials
  4.7. Air Quality Control Practices
    4.7.1 Diesel Emission Reduction Strategies
      Idling Reduction
      Diesel Engine Retrofits through Fleet Management
      Use of Clean Fuels
      Sample Diesel Emission Controls: The Boston Central Artery/Tunnel (CA/T) and New Haven Harbor Crossing
    4.7.2 Dust Control in Construction and Maintenance
      Model Air Monitoring and Dust Control Practices on Boston's Central Artery Project
    4.7.3 Practices to Minimize Emissions during Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) Construction
      Guidance for Plant Mix Production and Field Compaction Temperatures of HMA
      Aggregate, RAP, and Anti-Stripping Environmental Stewardship Practices
      HMA Facility Burner Operation and Maintenance Practices for Reducing Emissions
    4.7.4 Minimizing Volatile Organic Compounds from Traffic Paint
  4.8. Noise Minimization
    4.8.1 Underwater Pile Driving Practices and Conservation Measures
    4.8.2 Blasting Practices and Mitigation Measures
    4.8.3 Land-based Construction Noise Control Practices
    4.8.4 Construction Noise Pathway Controls
    4.8.5 Noise Complaint Procedure
  4.9. Materials Storage, Collection, and Spill Prevention on Construction Sites
    4.9.1 Materials Management on Construction Sites
    4.9.2 Materials Storage
    4.9.3 Control of Sediment from Raw Materials Storage Areas
    4.9.4 Collection, Disposal, and Diversion of Waste Materials on Construction Sites
      Practices to Retain and Avoid Toxic Runoff From Waste Material Storage
      Construction Waste Landfill Diversion
    4.9.5 Spill Prevention and Pollution Control for Hazardous Materials
  4.10. Vegetation Management in Construction
    4.10.1 General Weed Prevention Practices for Site-Disturbing Projects in Construction
    4.10.2 Potential Construction Contract Wording and Measures for Invasive Species Control
    4.10.3 Review and Pretreatment of Construction and Materials Sites
    4.10.4 Protection of Native Populations
    4.10.5 Vehicle Cleaning Practices
    4.10.6 Revegetation
    4.10.7 Shoulder Grading
    4.10.8 Revegetation and Vegetation Salvage Plan
    4.10.9 Site Preparation
  4.11. Soil Management in Construction
    4.11.1 Earthwork and Soil Management
    4.11.2 Contouring
    4.11.3 Subgrade Preparation and Landscape Excavation
    4.11.4 Topsoil Preservation
    4.11.5 Top Soil Specification for Imported Topsoil
  4.12. Establishing Vegetation at Construction Sites
    4.12.1 Establishing Native Grasses and Forbs
    4.12.2 Inspection of Nursery Stock
    4.12.3 Seed Selection and Specification
    4.12.4 Seeding Methods, Considering Texture and Size
      Drop, Drill, and Broadcast Seeding Methods
      Hydroseeding
    4.12.5 Mulches
    4.12.6 Fertilizer
    4.12.7 Irrigation
    4.12.8 Vegetation Establishment on Steep Cut Slopes
    4.12.9 Monitoring and Evaluating Vegetation Establishment during Construction
    4.12.10 Performance Measures for Vegetation Establishment
Chapter 5: Pavement, Materials, and Recycling
  5.1. Preventative Maintenance and Pavement Management Systems
  5.2. Stormwater Management in Paving Operations, Grinding, and Pavement Maintenance
      Missouri DOT Guidelines for Preventing Discharge from Diamond Grinding Operations
  5.3. Flexible Pavement/Asphalt
    5.3.1 Asphalt Cement Crack and Joint Grinding and Digouts/Structural Repair
    5.3.2 Asphalt Paving
    5.3.3 Emergency Pothole Repairs
    5.3.4 Sealing Operations
    5.3.5 Asphalt Equipment Cleaning
    5.3.6 Pavement Disposal
  5.4. Concrete Installation and Repair
    5.4.1 Portland Cement Crack, Patch, and Sealing
    5.4.2 Mudjacking and Drilling
    5.4.3 Concrete Installation and Slab and Spall Repair
    5.4.4 Further Practices for Preventing Contamination from Concrete Washout
  5.5. Pavement Marking
    5.5.1 Practices for Specific Types of Pavement Marking
      Paint Striping and Marking
      Raised/Recessed Pavement Marker Application and Removal
    5.5.2 General Environmental Stewardship Practices for Pavement Marking
    5.5.3 Removing Traffic Stripe and Pavement Marking
  5.6. Curb and Sidewalk Repair
  5.7. Recycling in Pavement and Roadside Appurtenances
    5.7.1 Recycling in the Aggregate Industry and Pavement Construction
    5.7.2 Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP)
      Practices in Use of RAP
      Use of RAP in Superpave
      In-Situ Hot Mixes: Cold In-Place Recycling and Hot In-Place Recycling
    5.7.3 Recycled Concrete Material/Aggregate (RCM/RCA)
      State DOT Experiences with RCA
      Use of Recycled Concrete as Aggregate in PCC Pavements
      Reclaimed Concrete Aggregate for Unbound Soil-Aggregate Base Course
    5.7.4 Recycled Roofing Shingles
      State DOT Experiences with Use of Recycled Roofing Shingles
    5.7.5 Fly Ash
      Fly Ash in PCC
      Fly Ash in Stabilized Base Course or Pozzolanic-Stabilized Mixtures (PSMs)
      Fly Ash as a Flexible Base
      Fly Ash in Flowable Fill
      Fly Ash in Soil Improvement
      Fly Ash in Asphalt Pavements and in Pavement Subsealing
      Fly Ash in Structural Fills/Embankments
    5.7.6 Foundry Sand
    5.7.7 Glass Aggregate/Cullet
    5.7.8 Steel Slag
    5.7.9 Scrap Iron Use for Steel Reinforcement
    5.7.10 Wet Bottom Ash and Boiler Slag
    5.7.11 Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) Waste
    5.7.12 Tire/Rubber Scraps
      Asphalt Rubber/Rubber Pavements
      Embankment and Retaining Wall Construction
      Rubber Spacer Blocks in Crash Barriers
      Rubber Buffings for Bridge Approach Expansion Joints
      Rubber Tires to Control Vegetation around Guardrails and Signposts
      Rubber Posts for Traffic Delineation and Channelization
    5.7.13 Plastics
      Plastics in Asphalt
      Recycled-Plastic Lumber in Noise Barriers, Posts, Guardrails, and Reinforcing Materials
      Plastics in Piles and Bridge Fenders
    5.7.14 Aluminum Sign Recycling and Chromate Coating Elimination
  5.8. Maintenance of Dirt and Gravel Roads
    5.8.1 Partnerships to Identify and Address the Most Pressing Erosion Problem Areas
    5.8.2 Tools and Techniques for Erosion Reduction/Prevention
Chapter 6: Maintenance Facilities Management
  6.1. Planning and Prioritizing Environmental Improvements at Maintenance Facilities
    6.1.1 Maintenance Facility Pollution Prevention Plans
    6.1.2 Environmental Information & Management Systems for Maintenance Facilities
      Maine DOT's EMS for Facilities
      Massachusetts Highway's EMS for Facilities Management
      Facility Management in PennDOT District 10 Strategic Environmental Management Program (SEMP)
      New Hampshire DOT's Inventory of Managed Properties
    6.1.3 Facility Siting and Prioritization of Environmental Improvements
      Facility Siting Considerations
      Environmental Data Needed for Evaluation in Facility Siting
      Criteria for Prioritizing Attention to Maintenance Facilities
  6.2. Facility Housekeeping Practices
    6.2.1 General Stormwater Protection Practices at DOT Maintenance Facilities
    6.2.2 Building and Grounds Maintenance
    6.2.3 Vehicle and Equipment Maintenance
      Pre-Operation Inspection
      Vehicle Fluid Removal
      Engine and Parts Cleaning
      Cleaning Up Spills of Vehicle and Equipment Fluids
    6.2.4 Sediment Control at Maintenance Facilities
      Evaluation of Exposed Soil Areas at Maintenance Facilities
      Implementation of Appropriate Erosion and Sediment Control at the Facility
      Inspection and Cleaning
    6.2.5 Materials Management at Maintenance Facilities
      Stockpile and Materials Management Practices and Procedures
    6.2.6 PennDOT Salt Stockpile Management, Stockpile Academy, and Quality Assurance Program
      Material Delivery and Storage
      Proper Handling and Use
    6.2.7 Waste Management
      Waste Determination
      Hazardous Waste Management Practices
      Non-Hazardous Industrial Wastes
      Non-Hazardous Solid Wastes
      Specialty Waste Disposal Procedures
      Specific Guidance for Certain Waste Management Issues
    6.2.8 Drum/Container Management
      Drum/Container labeling
      Drum/Container purchasing
      Recycling, Reuse, and Disposal of Used Drums/Containers
    6.2.9 Spills and Leaks
      Emergency Preparedness and Response Planning
      Communication and Training for Emergency Preparedness and Response
      Spill Prevention Control and Countermeasures (SPCC) Plans
      Finding and Resolving Illicit Connections, Illicit Discharge, and Illegal Dumping
      DOT Contribution to Local Spill Prevention Initiatives
    6.2.10 Ventilation and Exhaust Systems at Maintenance Facilities
    6.2.11 Facility Inspection and Reinspection to Achieve Environmental Goals and Continuous Improvement
  6.3. Yard and Floor Drain Management
    6.3.1 Procedural Practices and Other Non-Structural BMPs
      Stormwater/Washwater BMPs for Surface Runoff
      Structural BMPs
    6.3.2 Floor Drain Management
      Management of Oil/Water Separators
      Management of High Risk Effluent
      Management of Low Risk Effluent
      Floor Drain Maintenance and Sludge Removal
      Holding Tanks and Maintenance
      Leaks into Floor Drains
    6.3.3 Vehicle Washing
      Design and Operation of Washing Facilities
      Recycling Wash Water
  6.4. Energy Conservation
    6.4.1 Planning for Energy Conservation
    6.4.2 Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC)
    6.4.3 Lighting Efficiency
    6.4.4 Computer Equipment
  6.5. Under and Above-Ground Storage Tanks
      Tank Registration Practices
      Tank Equipment and Recordkeeping Practices
    6.5.1 Vehicle and Equipment Fueling Procedures and Practices
      Bulk Fuel Delivery
      Fueling Area Maintenance
      Refueling Practices
    6.5.2 Stewardship Practices for Known or Suspected Groundwater Contamination On-Site
Chapter 7: Bridge Maintenance
  7.1. Preventative Bridge Maintenance Practices
    7.1.1 Life Cycle Decisionmaking and Accounting for Ecological Risks
      Bridge Inspection and "Smart Bridges" for Preventative Maintenance
      Small Bridge Maintenance Activities that Can Eliminate the Need for Larger In or Over-Stream Work Projects
    7.1.2 Maintaining Drainage from Bridge Decks
    7.1.3 Bridge Cleaning
  7.2. Avoiding and Minimizing Impacts to Fish and Wildlife
    7.2.1 Identifying Opportunities to Avoid and Minimize Impacts
      Oregon DOT's Bridge System Identification of Avoidance and Minimization Opportunities
    7.2.2 Scheduling Maintenance and Improvements to Spend Minimal Time in Sensitive Environments
    7.2.3 Using Pre-Fabricated Bridges to Help Accommodate Stream/Fish Timing Restrictions
      Self-Propelled Modular Bridge Transporters
    7.2.4 Reducing the Space Needed for Large Equipment Access
  7.3. Enhancements to Bridges and Stream Access
    7.3.1 Fishing Access
    7.3.2 Bird and Bat Roosts in Bridges
      Virginia Department of Transportation Program Key in Comeback of Peregrine Falcons
      Protecting and Increasing Bat Roost Habitat in Bridges
      TxDOT Study and Bridge Modifications to Support Bat Usage
      Practices to Incorporate in Design, Construction, and Retrofitting of Bridges for Bats
      Success in Retrofitting Bridges to Accommodate Bats
      Preserving Portions of Old Bridges as Habitat
      Further DOT Efforts to Identify Characteristics and Design Features of Roost Bridges and Conservation Efforts
  7.4. Bridge Painting/Coating/Sealing and Containment Stewardship Practices
    7.4.1 Guidance and Specifications for Bridge Painting, Coatings, and Removal
      Missouri DOT Lead Paint Recycling
    7.4.2 Metallizing
    7.4.3 Overcoating
      Inspecting the Structure and Preparing Equipment
      Surface Preparation
      Blasting Using Recyclable Abrasive
      Closed Abrasive (Vacuum ) Blasting
      SP Levels of Blast Cleaning and Associated Practices to Avoid Current and Future Environmental Impacts
    7.4.4 Paint Selection, Storage, Handling, and Mixing
    7.4.5 Containment and Use of Enclosures
      Components of a Containment System
    7.4.6 Paint Application and Spraying Practices
    7.4.7 Debris Storage
    7.4.8 Quality Assurance and Public Outreach Programs
Chapter 8: Winter Operations and Salt, Sand, and Chemical Management
  8.0 Introduction
  8.1. Selecting Snow and Ice Control Materials to Mitigate Environmental Impacts
    8.1.1 Impacts of Salt and Chloride-Based Deicer on the Environment
    8.1.2 Impacts of Acetate Based Deicers on the Environment 10
    8.1.3 Impacts of Sand/Abrasives on the Environment 11
    8.1.4 Responding to Public Concerns/Complaints Regarding Contamination
  8.2. Reducing Sand Usage and Managing Traction Materials
  8.3. Strategic Planning for Reduced Salt Usage
    8.3.1 Salt Management Plans
    8.3.2 Winter Maintenance Effects on Safety and Mobility
  8.4 Stewardship Practices for Reducing Salt, Sand and Chemical Usage
    8.4.1 Shifting to Anti-icing
      8.4.1.1 Benefits of Shifting to Anti-icing
      8.4.1.2 Stewardship Practices to Minimize Anti-icing Materials Application
    8.4.2 Road Weather Information System (RWIS)
    8.4.3 Pavement Sensors and Thermal Mapping
    8.4.4 Infrared Thermometers (IRTs)
    8.4.5 Road Surface Traction/Friction Measurements
    8.4.6 Residual Chemical Measurement
    8.4.7 Nowcasting
    8.4.8 Road Weather Management Decision Support
      8.4.8.1 Clarus Initiative
      8.4.8.2 MDSS
    8.4.9 Weather Forecasts and Information Services
    8.4.10 Traffic Information
    8.4.11 Patrols
    8.4.12 Drift Control/Snow fences
      8.4.12.1 Living Snow Fences
  8.5 Precision Application to Manage and Reduce Chemical Applications
    8.5.1 Spreaders, Spread Patterns, and Spreader Controls
      8.5.1.1 Spread Patterns
    8.5.2 Material distribution systems (MDS)
      8.5.2.1 Tailgate Spreaders and Reverse Dumping of Dual Dump Spreaders
      8.5.2.2 Multipurpose Spreaders
      8.5.2.3 Rear-Discharge Spreaders
      8.5.2.4 Electronic Spreader Controls
      8.5.2.5 Rearward Casting Spreaders (including Ground-Speed and Zero-Velocity Spreaders)
    8.5.3 Pre-Wetting Solid Materials to Minimize Bounce and Improve Performance
    8.5.4 Fixed Automated Spray Technology (FAST)
    8.5.5 Calibration
    8.5.6 Operational Support Equipment
      8.5.6.1 Material Usage Monitoring
      8.5.6.2 Material Loading and Handling
  8.6 Monitoring and Recordkeeping
    8.6.1 Evaluating Treatment Effectiveness
      8.6.1.1 Environmental Performance Measures for Winter Operations
      8.6.1.2 Non-Environmental Performance Measures for Winter Operations
  8.7 Winter Operations Facilities Management
    8.7.1 Materials Storage
    8.7.2 Management of Snow Disposal Sites
      8.7.2.1 Site Security and Environmental Controls
      8.7.2.2 Site Management
      8.7.2.3 Pile and Meltwater Management
      8.7.2.4 Monitoring
      8.7.2.5 Site Operation
      8.7.2.6 Record Keeping
  8.8 Training for Salt Management and Winter Maintenance Operations
  References
  Appendix A - Acronyms
Chapter 9: Roadside Vegetation Management
  9.1. Inventory of and Management for Rare Species and Sensitive Resources in the ROW
      Caltrans Biological Management Areas
      Colorado DOT Maintenance Specs and Training for Management of Rare Species in the ROW
      North Carolina Rare Species Management
      Oregon DOT Special Management Areas for Rare Plants
      Oregon DOT GIS-Based Sensitive Resource Inventory
      Washington State Threat-Specific Rare Plant Management
      TxDOT Rare Plant Management Partnership
      Wisconsin DOT Characterization of the Karner Blue Butterfly Habitat in the ROW
      Canadian Practices for Vegetation Preservation from Winter Maintenance
  9.2. Growing Threats Drive Expansion of DOT Invasive Species Practice
    9.2.1 DOT Drivers, Obstacles, and Priorities Point to Areas of Needed Best Practices
    9.2.2 Inadequate Action to Control Invasive Species Creates Heavy Costs
    9.2.3 Utilizing Flexible Funding for Maintenance Planning to Control Invasive Species
  9.3. Practices for Prevention of Roadside Infestations
    9.3.1 Assessment and Management
    9.3.2 Identifying Major Pathways and Managing Risk
      Identifying Aspects of DOT Operations that Promote Invasive
      DOT Example of Environmental Aspect/Risk Identification: NSW RTA Assessment of Construction, Operation, and Maintenance Activities
      Risk Assessment
    9.3.3 Setting Priorities
    9.3.4 Prevention
    9.3.5 Eradication
    9.3.6 Containment
    9.3.7 Early Detection and Rapid Response
      Practices for Effective Early Detection Programs
      Active Detection - Surveys, Data Collection, and Storage
      Effective Rapid Response
  9.4. Statewide Inventory of Invasive or Noxious Species in the ROW and Update of Databases
    9.4.1 Inventory Approaches and Use
      How DOTs Are Using Collected Information
      Inventory/Mapping, Monitoring, and Analysis Resources
      Protection of Native and Rare Planet Communities in the ROW
    9.4.2 Monitoring and Follow-Up
    9.4.3 Information Management and Decision Support Systems in EDRR
      Weed Information Management System (WIMS)
      Utah DOT's RoadVeg GIS System
      PennDOT Roadside Spray Application (RoSA)
      Caltrans GIS for Locating Appropriate Plant Species
      NYSDOT's Plant Database
  9.5. Planning for Invasives Control
    9.5.1 Integrated Roadside Vegetation Management (IRVM)
    9.5.2 Developing IVM or IRVM Plans
      Iowa DOT's IRVM
      Mn/DOT Process for IRVM Planning
      New York State's 6-Step Approach to IVM Planning and Implementation
    9.5.3 Resources for Integrated Vegetation Management Planning
  9.6. Roadside Vegetation Control Methods and Resources
    9.6.1 General vs. Species Specific Control Methods
    9.6.2 Tailoring Treatments to DOT Functions and Development Stages
    9.6.3 Mechanical Controls
      Mowing
      Manual Removal - Pulling Weeds and Seed Head Cutting
      Tilling and Disking
      Cutting/Brushing and Management of Woody Vegetation
      Cleaning Mowing, Cutting, and Removal Equipment
    9.6.4 Physical Methods
      Covering
      Controlled Burns
      Grazing
      Changing Abiotic Factors
      Hunting and Other Use of Non-Indigenous Species
    9.6.5 Chemical Methods
      Herbicide Use as Part of an IVM Program
      Responding to Public Concerns of Herbicide with IRVM and Improved Stewardship Practice
      New Equipment to Focus and Minimize Herbicide Application
      Performance Indicators for Herbicide Use
      On-line Sources of Information
    9.6.6 Biological Control of Invasive Species
      Different Types of Biological Controls
      Biocontrol Resources on the Web
    9.6.7 Cultural Controls
      Review and Pretreatment of Construction and Materials Sites
      Protection of Native Populations
      Vehicle Cleaning Practices
      Soil Management on Construction Sites
      Shoulder Grading
    9.6.8 Revegetation Through Restoration of Native Species
      DelDOT-Livable Delaware Program to Revegetate with Native
      Iowa DOT Revegetation Program
      Illinois DOT Enhancement and Maintenance Projects Restore Prairie, Native Wildflower
      TxDOT Pilot on Context Sensitive and Natural Landscape Design in the Highway Right-of-Way
      TxDOT and Houston Green Ribbon Program
      FHWA Recommendations for Designing with Native Vegetation
  9.7. Management of Visual Quality of the Roadside
  9.8. Staffing, Training, & Partnerships
    9.8.1 Central IRVM Staff Person
    9.8.2 Coordinate with Other DOTs to Pool Experience in Tackling Priority Invasive Species
    9.8.3 Partnerships Extend DOT Capacity
      Partnerships with Other Agencies
      Partnerships with Non-Governmental Organizations and Quasi-Governmental Organizations
      Partnerships with Weed Management Areas or Districts
      Partnerships with Private Landowners
      Cooperative Efforts Across State Lines
      Partnerships with Utilities
      Dealing with Private Property Issues
    9.8.4 DOTs "Lessons Learned" Regarding Internal Communication and Ownership
      Legislative Considerations
      Upper Management
      Maintenance Supervisors
      Maintenance Staff
    9.8.5 Training Approaches
    9.8.6 Public Outreach
    9.8.7 Educational Resources, Information Sources, and Databases
Chapter 10: Roadside Management and Maintenance: Beyond Vegetation
  10.1. Environmental Enhancement Practices and Partnership Efforts
    10.1.1 Water Quality Retrofit Programs
      MDSHA's Water Quality Improvement and Retrofit Program
      Outfall Categorization and Improvement at Florida and Washington State DOTs
    10.1.2 Wetland Enhancement
      PennDOT Staff Partner to Enhance Local Wetlands
    10.1.3 Terrestrial Habitat Enhancement
      NYSDOT's Guidance for Placing Nest Boxes in ROW
      DOT Bat Boxes
      Bridge Related Enhancements
      Reduced Mowing at DOTs to Conserve Resources, Bird Habitat, and Native Species
      Iowa DOT Roadside Native Species Restoration Program in Maintenance
    10.1.4 Identifying and Implementing Aquatic Connectivity (Fish Passage) Improvements
      Oregon DOT Culvert Retrofit and Replacement Program Agreement
    10.1.5 Installation/Improvement of Public Fishing Access
      NYSDOT Public Access Enhancement and Partnership
    10.1.6 Extending Highway Maintenance Activities to Bicycle Trails
  10.2. Protection of Historic and Other Cultural Resources
  10.3. Maintenance in Wetlands
  10.4. Maintenance Near Waterbodies
      Kentucky Transportation Cabinet's New BMP Manual for Maintenance Activities In and Around Streams
  10.5. Maintenance of Structures for Wildlife
  10.6. Maintenance of Stormwater Facilities
    10.6.1 State DOT Inventory, Tracking, and Prioritization Systems
      MDSHA Inventory System for Water Quality Improvement/Retrofitting
      Minnesota DOT System for Inventorying Hydraulic Conveyance Structures
      Michigan DOT and Local Studies to Prioritize Funding of Stormwater Retrofits
  10.7. Maintenance of Roadside Public Facilities
    10.7.1 Potential Pollutant Sources and Environmental Stewardship Practices
    10.7.2 Graffiti Removal
    10.7.3 Electrical Maintenance
  10.8. Management of Portable Sanitary/Septic Waste Systems
  10.9. Maintenance of Shoulders and Roadway Appurtenances
    10.9.1 Cleaning/Sweeping of Shoulders
    10.9.2 Shoulder Grading, Widening, Blading, or Rebuilding
    10.9.3 Guardrail Maintenance and Replacement
    10.9.4 Attenuator Maintenance
    10.9.5 Luminaire Replacement to Reduce Light Pollution and Increase Energy Efficiency
      Light Minimization and Energy Efficiency Practices
      Oregon DOT Illumination Reduction Practices
    10.9.6 Use of Light-Emitting Diode (LED) Traffic Signals to Reduce Energy Usage
  10.10. Sweeping and Vacuuming of Roads, Decks, Water Quality Facilities, and Bridge Scuppers
  10.11. Maintenance Stewardship Practices for Slopes, Drainage Ditches, Swales, and Diversions
    10.11.1 Drainage Ditch and Channel Maintenance
      Ditch Cleaning Practices
    10.11.2 Evaluating Ditches and Culverts for Water Quality and Function
      Culvert Management Systems
      Drainage Ditch Evaluation
      Evaluation of Other Drainage Structures
    10.11.3 Drain and Culvert Maintenance for Water Quality and Fish Passage
    10.11.4 Evaluating and Ranking Slope Stability and Chronic Environmental Deficiencies
      Washington State DOT Chronic Environmental Deficiencies (CED) Program & Rating to Prioritize Sites
    10.11.5 Slope Repair Practices
  10.12. Erosion and Sediment Control in Maintenance
    10.12.1 Evaluating and Ranking Roadside Erosion Control Problem Areas
      PennState's Dirt & Gravel Roads Center System for Identifying and Ranking Erosion Control Problem Areas
  10.13. Recycling in Roadside Maintenance Operations
    10.13.1 Use of Compost to Stabilize Steep Slopes and Prevent Erosion and Sediment Control
    10.13.2 Composting Deer Carcasses
    10.13.3 Recycling and Reducing Waste/Emission
      Missouri DOT's Efforts to Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle
      Mass Highway's Pollution Prevention Program for Construction and Maintenance
  10.14. Preserving Air Quality in Maintenance and Operations
      Ozone Action Days
      Regular Vehicle Maintenance and Tune-Ups
      Alternate Fuel Vehicles and Refueling Stations
      Night Refueling and "Don't Top off the Tank" Policies
      Truck Stop Electrification
      Atmospheric Dispersion of Deicing Salt Applied To Roads
      Open Burning
  10.15. Painting Operation Stormwater BMPs
  10.16. Road Waste Management
    10.16.1 Stormwater System Residuals and "Vactor Waste:" Catch Basin, Sump and Line Cleanout
    10.16.2 Road and Roadside Dirt and Debris
      Winter Road Sand
      Ditching Spoils and Sediment Pond Cleanout
      Landscape Cuttings: Greenwaste
      Construction Site Soils and Slide Debris
    10.16.3 Disposal and Re-use Options
      Re-use of Roadwaste
      Treatment Options
      Disposal Options
  10.17. Stockpiling, Spoil Disposal or Placement of Inert Fill
  10.18. Maintenance of Soils
  10.19. Emergency Actions
  10.20. Field Review of Roadside Maintenance Operations
      Caltrans Maintenance Activity Pollution Prevention Program
      South Carolina DOT Quality Management of Maintenance Activities
      WSDOT's Maintenance Accountability Process and Environmental Factors
Chapter 11: Appendix
  11.1. Florida DOT Environmental Policy
  11.2. Kentucky Transportation Cabinet Environmental Policy
  11.3. Maine Dot Environmental Policy
  11.4. North Carolina DOT Environmental Stewardship Policy
  11.5. PennDOT's Green Plan Policy Statement
  11.6. Washington State Dot Environmental Policy
  11.7. New South Wales Roads and Traffic Authority Environmental Policy
  11.8. Texas Environmental Commitment Checklist
  11.9. Maine DOT Environmental and Safety Auditing Policy and Procedure
  11.10. Maine DOT Corrective Action Request Form
  11.11. Mass Highway Compliance Tracking Methods
  11.12. Mass Highway Compliance Tracking Roles and Responsibilities
  11.13. Mass Highway Self-Audit Procedure
  11.14. Mass Highway Facility Self-Audit Checklist
  11.15. Mass Highway Environmental Roles & Responsibilities
  11.16. Mass Highway Environmental Section EMS Roles and Responsibilities
  11.17. Mass Highway Operations Division EMS Roles and Responsibilities
  11.18. Mass Highway District EMS Roles and Responsibilities
  11.19. Mass Highway Training Expectations By Role
  11.20. Mass Highway Environmental Training Program Roles and Responsibilities
  11.21. PennDOT District 10 SEMP Responsibility Table
  11.22. PennDOT District 10 SEMP Training Table
  11.23. NYSDOT Construction/Environmental Training Schedule
  11.24. Environmental Checklist for MoDOT Facilities
  11.25. PennDOT Stockpile Quality Assurance Responsibilities
  11.26. PennDOT 15-Minute Stockpile Walkaround
  11.27. PennDOT Stockpile Snapshot
  11.28. PennDOT Maintenance Stockpile Activity Protocol
  11.29. PennDOT Post-Storm Salt Management Tracking Responsibilities
  11.30. Risk, Compliance Issues, and Management Examples for Highway-Generated Waste - Oregon DOT
  11.31. NYSDOT-DEC Deer Carcass Composting - Practice Guidelines
  11.32. NYSDOT's Draft Metric for Assessing Performance of Integrated Vegetation Management on ROW
  11.33. NCDOT Roadside Vegetation Management Guidelines in Marked Areas
 
 
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Table of Contents
 
Chapters
Chapter 1: Introduction and Research Approach
Chapter 2: Organizational Environmental Stewardship Practices
Chapter 3: Designing for Environmental Stewardship in Construction & Maintenance
Chapter 4: Construction Practices for Environmental Stewardship
Chapter 5: Pavement, Materials, and Recycling
Chapter 6: Maintenance Facilities Management
Chapter 7: Bridge Maintenance
Chapter 8: Winter Operations and Salt, Sand and Chemical Management
Chapter 9: Roadside Vegetation Management
Chapter 10: Roadside Management and Maintenance: Beyond Vegetation
Chapter 11: Appendix
   
Lists: Examples | Tables | Figures
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