Listed below are recent developments pertinent to air quality from the past six months. If you would like to suggest a recent development on this topic, please submit a short description to AASHTO (including any pertinent links) on the Share Info with AASHTO form.
The Transportation Research Board has released Research Report 862 to assist in potential deployment of fuel-efficient and low-emission truck freight strategies. The report addresses diversity in the trucking industry and several clean truck strategies. The report also provides an overview of alternative fuels and technologies that target fuel efficiency such as technologies for tractor trailers, tires, and idle-reduction. In addition, operational strategies to reduce travel, idling, and inefficient engine operations are provided and clean truck corridor infrastructure is highlighted. Finally, federal and state agency efforts are illustrated to show best practices. For more information, link to the report. (11-29-17)
The Transportation Research Board has issued a guide for determining air emissions from airport-related ground access vehicles. The Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Research Report 180, Guidebook for Quantifying Airport Ground Access Vehicle Activity for Emissions Modeling, provides a set of identified best practices for obtaining emission values for various computer models such as the EPA’s MOVES. The guidebook presents a three-tiered approach for making decisions about the data needed for the analysis and for collaborating on data collection. For more information, link to the guide. (11-28-17)
The Federal Highway Administration has published a list of state departments of transportation and metropolitan planning organizations (MPOs) that are required to establish targets and report progress for the performance measures related to the Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality Improvement Program (CMAQ). Forty-two DOTs and 119 MPOs must establish targets for the On-road Source Emissions measure. Thirty-two DOTs and 44 MPOs must establish targets for the Traffic Congestion Measures. The FHWA is phasing in the requirements to implement CMAQ traffic congestion measures starting with areas with more than 1 million people, then expanding in 2022 to areas with over 200,000 residents. For more information, link to the applicability determination. (11-14-17)
The Texas A&M Transportation Institute, Center for Advancing Research in Transportation Emissions, Energy, and Health, will host a seminar on methodologies identified in environmental epidemiologic studies and the health effects of traffic-related pollution. Methodologies to be discussed include geographic information systems, modeling, and personal and remote sensing. The seminar also will review policy impacts and solutions to mitigate traffic-related pollution at the urban scale. The seminar is scheduled for Dec. 5, 2017 in College Station and via webinar. For more information, link to the announcement.
The National Cooperative Highway Research Program has issued two reports regarding the development of the software tool TFGuide, for travel forecasting. TFGuide aids in the selection of methods and techniques based on application needs, resource constraints, available data, and existing model structure. NCHRP Report 852 provides an overview of how to use the tool and a case study to demonstrate how a metropolitan planning organization used the software to perform a transit corridor study. The report also addresses the role of the travel forecaster, transportation planner, and decision maker. The NCHRP also issued a companion document that addresses the current state of practice in travel demand models, the software design and functionality of TFGuide, pilot tests conducted using the tool, and a history of travel forecasting legislation. For more information, link to the web-only document and the research report. (10-20-17)
The Energy Department’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory has issued a report on the potential for using electric vehicles for government, commercial, and industrial purposes. The report focuses on highway vehicles that are not personal transport; non-highway modes such as rail, watercraft, and airport support; and non-road equipment used directly or in support of other uses. The report finds that electric vehicles are poorly suited for long-haul trucking but have potential for other vehicles where savings on fuel costs could be significant, such as transit buses, school buses, regional and local delivery trucks, utility service vehicles, and refuse trucks. The report also finds that low supply and low demand is hampering the development of options for commercial fleets, and that successful development will be a long process involving research and development, manufacturing, purchasing, and new regulations. For more information, link to the report. (10-20-17)
The Florida Department of Transportation, along with partners MetroPlan Orlando and the University of Central Florida, will be implementing projects funded by the Federal Highway Administration’s Advanced Transportation and Congestion Management Technologies Deployment program. FDOT and Orlando will use the nearly $12 million grant to implement and evaluate four intelligent transportation technologies to help reduce congestion and improve safety. GreenWay will use sensors and new traffic signal technology to help the transportation system quickly adapt to real-time traffic conditions. PedSafe will digitally connect vehicles, people, and traffic lights to develop pedestrian and bicycle collision avoidance. SmartCommunity will combine information from many different transportation options into a one-stop shop for trip planning. SunStore will be the FDOT’s integrated central data storage for system management and operations. For more information, link to the announcement. (10-16-17)
The Federal Highway Administration has awarded $53.6 million to 10 states under the Advanced Transportation and Congestion Management Technologies Deployment program. The projects will address advanced real-time traveler information for drivers; public transit riders and freight shippers; vehicle-to-infrastructure communications to increase safety and support autonomous vehicles; and congestion-relieving traffic management systems. Recipients such as the County of Greenville, S.C. will set up a system of automated taxi-shuttles to improve transportation access for underserved populations. In addition, the Florida DOT plans to advance intelligent transportation technologies and the Texas DOT will deploy connected vehicle technologies in over 1,000 trucks and agency fleet vehicles. For more information, link to the announcement. (10-4-17)
The Federal Highway Administration has announced the 2017 request for nominations for designation of alternative fuel corridors. Alternative fuel corridors provide infrastructure for electric vehicle charging, hydrogen, propane, and natural gas fueling. States and local officials wishing to provide nominations must submit information concerning the name of the entity presiding over the proposed corridor; the type of fuel to be used; the type, number, and distance between existing alternative fuel facilities; and the estimated/projected cost of the planned facilities. The FHWA also has issued a frequently asked questions document to address the designation process. A webinar on the nomination process is scheduled for Oct. 16, 2017. For more information, link to the announcement.
Nine research papers concerning the optimization of traffic signals are addressed in the Transportation Research Board’s Transportation Research Record journal, Volume 2619. The journal addresses adaptive coordination based on connected vehicles, evaluations of transit priority signaling, trends in transit bus dwell times, and an assessment of signal timing plans through seasonal variations. The journal also includes papers on safety and cybersecurity concerns. For more information, link to the journal. (9-14-17)
Twenty two research papers concerning demand forecasting and roadway pricing are addressed in the Transportation Research Record journals, Volume Nos. 2669 and 2670. The journals address models of travel mode and departure time choices, pricing and reliability enhancements for activity-based travel mode, and equity effects of congestion charges. The journals also address the use of congestion-priced road user charges to restore mobility and fund highways, evaluation of acceptable toll rates in road concessions, and methods to estimate time-dependent origin-destination demand in congested networks. For more information, link to the demand forecasting and finance and pricing journal issues. (8-21-17)
The Federal Highway Administration has issued a revised carbon monoxide categorical hot-spot finding for 2017. The finding, which updates and supersedes a 2014 version, allows projects that fall within the acceptable ranges to reference the finding in place of doing an independent carbon monoxide hot-spot analysis as part of a project-level conformity determination in carbon monoxide maintenance areas. The FHWA, working with the Environmental Protection Agency, modeled a large intersection operating at capacity using the 2014 Motor Vehicle Emissions Simulator (MOVES2014a) and the CAL3QHC model to develop emission rates and acceptable ranges for modeled parameters. For more information, link to the memorandum and finding. (7-18-17)
The use of funds from the Volkswagen emissions cheating settlement is addressed in a new report issued by the U.S. PIRG Education Fund. The settlement resulted in $2.9 billion in environmental mitigation trust (EMT) funds and $2 billion for a Zero Emission Vehicle Fund. U.S. PIRG makes the case for states to use their settlement money to adopt electric vehicles (EVs) to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and increase economic activity. The report provides a review of the existing EV charging infrastructure and potential energy and cost savings. It indicates that if $435 million in EMT funds are used, states could supply between 4,350 and 8,700 additional charging stations. The report also recommends that states invest in electrifying bus fleets, which account for the largest percentage of transportation trips and passenger miles. For more information, link to the report. (7-6-17)
A Practitioner’s Handbook on air quality issues for transportation projects during the National Environmental Policy Act review process has been issued by the Center for Environmental Excellence by AASHTO. The handbook summarizes key requirements under NEPA and the Clean Air Act and provides advice for documenting compliance. It also offers practical tips on topics including transportation conformity requirements, conducting hot-spot analyses and making project-level conformity determinations, considering mobile-source air toxics emissions, and documenting analyses and determinations in the NEPA process. For more information, including the handbook, related webinar, and webinar presentation, link here.
An approach for conducting a quantitative mobile source air toxics (MSAT) analysis using the EPA’s MOVES2014a software on a hypothetical road widening project has been released by the Federal Highway Administration. The analysis considers how the project would change roadway volumes and impact congestion. It compares emissions between several alternatives and timeframes and for different volumes of truck traffic. The analysis is an update to a previous analysis done in 2006, incorporating more stringent Tier 2 and Tier 3 vehicle emissions standards, as well as the latest data on vehicle emissions characteristics. For more information, link to the analysis. (5-15-17)
The Federal Highway Administration has published the February/March 2017 newsletter highlighting air quality and sustainability news. The newsletter includes information concerning the Executive Order on energy independence and economic growth, Q&A on emergency relief program and resilience and the Atlanta peer exchange on climate resilience. The newsletter also includes information regarding new resilience elements in the transportation planning rule and project development assessment of climate change and lists upcoming meetings, conferences, workshops, and training opportunities. For more information, link to the newsletter. (4-17-17)
The Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Air and Radiation has scheduled a public teleconference to obtain feedback on air- and radiation-related regulatory actions. The teleconference will be held on April 24, from 11 a.m. to 2 p.m. EDT. The dial-in number is (800) 305-3182, conference ID# 8535873. Callers may nominate themselves to speak by hitting *1 to be added to a queue. Speakers will be asked to deliver 3 minutes of remarks and will be called on a first come, first served basis. The teleconference will be transcribed and will be added to the docket. Individuals that do not have the opportunity to speak on the call may submit input to the EPA-wide docket (docket number: EPA-HQ-OA-2017-0190). (4-17-17)
Successful implementation of complete streets provisions under the Fixing America’s Surface Transportation (FAST) Act is addressed in a report from Smart Growth America. Under the provisions, National Highway System road designs are required to incorporate access for all modes of transportation and local governments are permitted to use their own design guide to creating complete streets projects. Examples of success include the development of projects along I-40 in Oklahoma City to expand bikesharing and in Atlanta where the city is devoting $109 million to complete streets improvements over the next five years. An emphasis on project planning, design and implementation is what has made the complete streets approach so fruitful. For more information, link to the announcement. (4-6-17)
The Federal Highway Administration has released a guide for state and local officials addressing determinations of whether transportation improvements conform to the air quality objectives in state implementation plans. The guide describes a conformity determination and addresses the responsibility for making those determinations. The guide includes the elements of a conformity determination, such as interagency consultation and regional emissions analysis, and highlights options for metropolitan planning organizations to reduce emissions. The guide also addresses project-level conformity and hot-spot analysis required for federal highway and transit projects. For more information, link to the guide. (February 2017)
The World Resources Institute, in coordination with the Beijing Transport Institute, has released a report regarding the low emission zone and congestion charging (LEZ/CC) scheme. The report focuses on surcharges within congested road areas and the designation of emission control areas to reduce vehicle pollutants in London, Singapore and Stockholm to assist similar efforts in China. The report includes city history of transportation policies, stakeholder engagement efforts and congestion pricing system performance and its effects on traffic within each city. The report also identifies best practices and indicates that forms of legal safeguards from national government, strong policy objectives and equity and transparency are key to successful implementation of the LEZ/CC scheme. For more information, link to the report. (3-28-17)
The long-term economic potential of low-carbon natural gas (LCNG) within the transportation sector is explored in a report by the Joint Institute for Strategic Energy Analysis. The report addresses the use of LCNG, which includes methane from biomass and fossil gas mixed with hydrogen, in light, medium and heavy-duty vehicles. The report includes data concerning woody and herbaceous feedstocks to produce biogas to determine total resource potential for LCNG production and an analysis of projected transportation fuel demand. The report also analyzes emissions regarding a vehicle’s cumulative emissions on a per-mile-traveled basis and includes calculations for each LCNG pathway’s total cost. For more information, link to the report. (3-18-17)
The U.S. Department of Transportation and Environmental Protection Agency have announced that the EPA will reconsider a final determination regarding the midterm evaluation of greenhouse gas standards for light duty vehicles from model years 2022-2025. The previous determination found that automakers were well positioned to meet the standards at lower costs than previously estimated. The reconsideration will be coordinated with the parallel process to be undertaken by the DOT’s National Highway Transportation Administration regarding corporate average fuel economy standards for cars and light trucks for the same model years. EPA intends to make a new final determination regarding the appropriateness of the greenhouse gas standards by April 1, 2018. For more information, link to the EPA midterm evaluation website and to the notice. (3-15-17)
Fifteen research papers on travel demand forecasting are included in the Transportation Research Board’s Transportation Research Record. Papers include transportation planning though peer-to-peer modeling, microsimulation of demand and supply of autonomous mobility on demand, and the use of predicted bicycle and pedestrian route choice to enhance mode choice models. It also includes papers on assumptions inherent in assessing traffic forecast accuracy, evaluation of transport user benefits and measurement of self-selection effects to understand travel behavior impacts. For more information, link to the report. (3-5-17)
The Federal Highway Administration has issued guidance concerning use of signs for designated alternative fuel corridors. The guidance, which notes that such signs are not mandatory, specifies that all signs that are developed for such corridors should use simplified message content with reasonable sign size, while minimizing driver distraction through limited use of the signing and proper placement. The guidance also specifies that general service signage is limited to compressed natural gas, liquefied natural gas, electric vehicles, hydrogen and liquefied petroleum gas usage. The guidance includes instructions for signs installed on freeways, expressways and conventional roads and provides detailed illustrations of how signs should be presented. Use of such signs is not mandatory. For more information, link to the guidance. (12-21-17)
The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) has published the December 2016/January 2017 newsletter highlighting air quality and climate change news. The newsletter includes information concerning the Environmental Protection Agency’s final rule on guidelines for air quality models, the proposed 2015 Ozone Standard Implementation Rule and updates to the Motor Vehicle Emission Simulator 2014a. The newsletter also provides information on the 6th Transportation Research Board annual meeting and lists upcoming meetings, conferences, workshops, and training opportunities. For more information, link to the newsletter. (2-2-17)
The Federal Highway Administration has announced an update to the Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality (CMAQ) Emission Calculator Toolkit. The update adds a module for advanced diesel truck/engine technologies, which includes an on-road activity calculator, an on-road diesel repower or replacement calculator and an on-road diesel retrofits calculator. The tool also provides users with Motor Vehicle Emissions Simulator documentation with national-scale run parameters to support calculation of on-road diesel retrofit and on-road repower/replacement. For more information, link to the toolkit. (1-6-17)
The Federal Highway Administration has published the October/November 2016 newsletter highlighting air quality and climate change news. The newsletter includes information on the updated interim guidance on mobile source air toxics analysis in NEPA documents, the designation of alternative fuel corridors, the updated greenhouse gas emission reduction policy analysis tool, INVEST case studies, recordings and the congestion mitigation and air quality improvement program emission reductions calculator. The newsletter also lists upcoming meetings, conferences, workshops, training opportunities and deadlines. For more information, link to the newsletter. (11-29-16)
The Federal Highway Administration has issued recommendations for conducting quantitative analyses of mobile source air toxics emissions under the National Environmental Policy Act. The guidance, which follows a recently issued interim guidance update, includes the scope of the Motor Vehicle Emissions Simulator (MOVES) model, and information concerning gathering input data and post-processing results. The document also specifies how to define the affected environment for calculating changes in emissions and provides templates for MSAT RunSpec and MSAT county data manager. For more information, link to the guidance. (11-1-16)
The Environmental Protection Agency has released a research report with recommendations for constructing roadside vegetation barriers to improve near-road air quality. The report encompasses barrier design recommendations, characteristics for best vegetative barriers, benefits of combining vegetation with solid noise barriers and various other resources. The EPA has conducted field studies, wind tunnel assessments and modeling to examine the role of roadside barriers in reducing pollution near homes, schools and other buildings near major roadways. The report indicates that reduction in pollution is greater when vegetative barriers are thick with coverage from the ground to top of the canopy. For more information, link to the fact sheet. (11-2-16)
The Environmental Protection Agency has released its report on trends in light-duty automotive technology, carbon dioxide emissions and fuel economy from 1975 to 2016. The report includes data based on annual production volumes of new personal vehicles delivered for sale in the U.S. by model year that include passenger cars, sport utility vehicles, minivans, pickup trucks and vans. The report analyzes fleetwide trends by vehicle class, type, attribute, manufacturer, and make and examines conventional technologies. Recent trends indicate that conventional hybrid technology has enabled manufacturers to offer high fuel economy vehicles with much greater utility while also meeting emissions and safety standards. Recent trends also suggest that some manufacturers have been able to adopt technology faster than industry-wide data has indicated. For more information, link to the report. (11-2-16)
The Federal Highway Administration has issued an updated interim guidance for mobile source air toxic (MSAT) analysis in National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documents. The FHWA is updating the 2012 interim guidance by incorporating new analysis conducted using the Environmental Protection Agency’s latest update of the Motor Vehicle Emissions Simulator (MOVES) vehicle emissions model, MOVES2014a. Based on the use of MOVES2014a, diesel particulate matter remains the dominant MSAT of concern for highway projects. The FHWA also has released the revised status of scientific research on air toxics. For more information, link to the updated interim guidance. (10-27-16)
The Federal Highway Administration has added new resources to its “It All Adds Up to Cleaner Air” website, including new ideas and marketing materials to help communities reduce traffic congestion and pollution. The site also highlights success stories such as the Georgia DOT’s Georgia Commute Options Program, which helps reduce single-occupancy vehicle travel by facilitating carpooling and promoting vanpooling and bicycling to work. The initiative provides tools to help mitigate congestion and promote alternative modes of transportation. For more information, link to the materials and success story. (10-7-16)
The Federal Highway Administration has published the August/September 2016 newsletter highlighting air quality and climate change news. The newsletter includes information on the release of the White House Council on Environmental Quality’s final guidance for federal agencies on how to consider climate change in environmental reviews, the final report on the climate resilience pilot program, proposed and final rules being released, and the release of the Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality Improvement Program emissions reductions calculator. The newsletter also lists upcoming meetings, conferences, workshops, and deadlines. For more information, link to the newsletter. (9-30-16)
The Federal Highway Administration has released the first module of the Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality (CMAQ) Emissions Calculator Toolkit. The toolkit provides resources departments of transportation can use for the implementation of the CMAQ program, which supports surface transportation projects and related efforts that contribute to improved air quality and provide congestion relief. The traffic flow improvement tool is one of a series of spreadsheet-based tools to facilitate the calculation of representative air quality benefit data, for CMAQ project justification as well as the annual reporting requirements. Additional toolkit modules are under development. For more information, link to the toolkit. (9-26-16).
The Environmental Protection Agency has recognized its 2016 SmartWay excellence awardees. Nine retailer, manufacturer and logistic company partners from various states such as California, Florida and Georgia were awarded for their efforts at reducing freight emissions. The improvements were accomplished through collaboration, advanced technology and operational practices, a robust system for validating and reporting data, and public outreach. It is estimated that SmartWay partners have avoided emitting 72 million metric tons of carbon pollution change and saved over 170 million barrels of oil and $24.9 billion in fuel costs. For more information, link to the press release. (9-27-16)
The Environmental Protection Agency has announced the availability of $7 million in rebates for school bus replacement and retrofits for 2016 as part of the Diesel Emission Reduction Program. The program was reauthorized under the Diesel Emissions Reduction Act of 2010 to encourage school bus fleet turnover. The rebates provide funding to public and private fleet owners to replace school buses powered by model year 2006 or older engines with new buses powered by 2016 or newer model year engine, or that operate on electricity. Assistance is also provided to retrofit buses powered by model year 1994 to 2006 engines with diesel oxidation catalysts closed crankcase ventilation. Applications for rebates are due Nov. 1, 2016. For more information, link to the announcement. (9-28-2016)
The Federal Highway Administration has released a report concerning the application of performance-based practical design solutions for the construction and use of narrower lanes and shoulders on freeways to increase capacity and reduce congestion within the existing footprint. Case studies from Los Angeles, Miami-Dade, Fla., Milwaukee and Washington state, are included regarding the successful development of general purpose lanes, managed lanes and the creation of a lane in an existing interchange. For more information, link to the report. (9-6-16)
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